Network Construction


Networking is a group of system of interconnected people or things. Broadband network is a common term among existing network constructions system. Microwave transmission is commonly used for high quality point to point communication system. Highly recommended for wireless internet service providers. In telecommunication 4G is the fourth generation of cell phone communication standards.

It is a successor of the third generation 3G standards. As 4G provides mobile ultra-broadband internet access. Major telecommunications companies and most resellers have been rolling out to upgrade 4G. Optus, Vodafone, Telstra are common names. Network optimization still continuous for upgrading network system vastly.

Network Construction

Network construction is important for connectivity. It deals with managing server, not only essential for getting services online also offline based communication. It also ensures how smoothly one can get connected.

Networking confines with some terminology:

  • Connection
  • Packet
  • Network interface
  • LAN
  • WAN
  • Protocol
  • Port
  • Firewall
  • NAT
  • VPN

Connection:

In networking, a connection refers to pieces of related information that are transferred through a network. This generally infers that a connection is built before the data transfer (by following the procedures laid out in a protocol) and then is deconstructed at the at the end of the data transfer.

Packet:

A packet is, generally speaking, the most basic unit that is transferred over a network. When communicating over a network, packets are the envelopes that carry data (in pieces) from one end point to the other.

Network Interface:

A network interface can refer to any kind of software interface to networking hardware. For instance, if you have two network cards in your computer, you can control and configure each network interface associated with them individually.

LAN:

LAN stands for “local area network”. It refers to a network or a portion of a network that is not publicly accessible to the greater internet. A home or office network is an example of a LAN.

WAN:

WAN stands for “wide area network”. It means a network that is much more extensive than a LAN. While WAN is the relevant term to use to describe large, dispersed networks in general, it is usually meant to mean the internet, as a whole.

Protocol:

A protocol is a set of rules and standards that basically define a language that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different layers.

Port:

A port is an address on a single machine that can be tied to a specific piece of software. It is not a physical interface or location, but it allows your server to be able to communicate using more than one application.

Firewall:

A firewall is a program that decides whether traffic coming into a server or going out should be allowed. A firewall usually works by creating rules for which type of traffic is acceptable on which ports. Generally, firewalls block ports that are not used by a specific application on a server.

NAT:

NAT stands for network address translation. It is a way to translate requests that are incoming into a routing server to the relevant devices or servers that it knows about in the LAN. This is usually implemented in physical LANs as a way to route requests through one IP address to the necessary backend servers.

VPN:

VPN stands for virtual private network. It is a means of connecting separate LANs through the internet, while maintaining privacy. This is used as a means of connecting remote systems as if they were on a local network, often for security reasons.

Broadband Network

Broadband is a WAN (Wide Area Network). That systemically connect to an internet source.

In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio, twisted pair or satellite. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access. The WAN allows router to connect to the internet and share that connection with all the Ethernet ready devices. Commonly used networks are: Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity), Generation based broadband cellular network 2G,3G,4G

Practically every cellular system has some kind of broadcast mechanism. This can be used directly for distributing information to multiple mobiles. Commonly, for example in mobile telephony systems, the most important use of broadcast information is to set up channels for one-to-one communication between the mobile transceiver and the base station. This is called paging. The three different paging procedures generally adopted are sequential, parallel and selective paging.

 

The details of the process of paging vary somewhat from network to network, but normally we know a limited number of cells where the phone is located (this group of cells is called a Location Area in the GSM or UMTS system, or Routing Area if a data packet session is involved; in LTE, cells are grouped into Tracking Areas).

Paging takes place by sending the broadcast message to all of those cells. Paging messages can be used for information transfer. This happens in pagers, in CDMA systems for sending SMS messages, and in the UMTS system where it allows for low downlink latency in packet-based connections.

Microwave Transmission

Microwave transmission is the transmission of information by electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the microwave range (1 m - 1 mm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Microwave signals are normally limited to the line-of-sight, so long-distance transmission using these signals requires a series of repeaters forming a microwave relay. It is possible to use microwave signals in over-the-horizon communications using tropospheric scatter, but such systems are expensive and generally used only in specialist roles.

In the post-war era, the development of microwave technology was rapid, which led to the construction of several transcontinental microwave relay systems in North America and Europe. In addition to carrying thousands of telephone calls at a time, these networks were also used to send television signals for cross-country broadcast, and later, computer data.

Communication satellites took over the television broadcast market during the 1970s and 80s, and the introduction of long-distance fiber optic systems in the 1980s and especially 90s led to the rapid rundown of the relay networks, most of which are abandoned.

In recent years, there has been an explosive increase in use of the microwave spectrum by new telecommunication technologies such as wireless networks, and direct-broadcast satellites which broadcast television and radio directly into consumers' homes. Larger line-of-sight links are once again popular for handing connections between mobile telephone towers, although these are generally not organized into long relay chains

Network Construction in Australia

Internet in Australia first became available on a permanent basis to universities in Australia in May 1989, via AARNet. Pegasus Networks was Australia's first public Internet provider in June 1989. The first commercial dial-up Internet Service Provider (ISP) appeared in capital cities soon after and by the mid-1990s almost the entire country had a range of choices of dial-up ISPs Today, Internet access is available through a range of technologies, i.e.

Hybrid fibre coaxial cable, digital subscriber line (DSL), Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and satellite Internet. In July 2009, the federal government, in partnership with the industrial sector, began rolling out a nationwide fibre-to-the-premises (FTTP) and improved fixed wireless and satellite access through the National Broadband Network. Subsequently, the roll out was downgraded to a Multi-Technology Mix on the promise of it being less expensive and with earlier completion in October 2020, the federal government announced an upgrade by 2023 of NBN fibre-to-the-node (FTTN) services to FTTP for 2 million households, at a cost of A$3.5 billion.

First Broadband in Australia

In the late 1990s, Telstra and Optus rolled-out separate cable Internet services, focusing on the east coast. The first broadband service over HFC was around 1995 using the Motorola proprietary protocols. In around 2000 DOCSIS was rolled out then in around 2008 the HFC was upgraded to support 30 Mbit/s. In 2000, the first consumer ADSL services were made available via Telstra Bigpond, at speeds of 256/64 kbit/s (downstream/upstream), 512/128 kbit/s, and 1500/256 kbit/s.

Telstra chose to artificially limit all ADSL speeds to a maximum of 1500/256 kbit/s. As ADSL required access to the telephone exchange and the copper line — which only Telstra had — this allowed Telstra to be dominant due to the expense of roll-out for other companies and Telstra's established customer base. Other ISPs followed suit soon after; offering a Telstra Wholesale–based service.

Now, Telstra which is one of the known cellular networking providers of Australia has stated plans to cover 90 per cent of the Australian population with 4G service by the end of January 2015. As of 27 August, Telstra had 5.2 million 4G customers. In addition to the capital cities, the Telstra 4G network covers more than 300 regional towns.

Optus & Vodaphone is also spreading fast network.

Network Optimization

Network optimization comprises the tools, technology, services help to improve & update. In March 2007, there were approximately 4.33 million broadband subscribers in Australia and 2.09 million narrowband subscribers. Between December 2007 and June 2008 there was an increase in the number of wireless internet subscribers from 433,000 to 809,000.

Customers on connection speeds of 1.5 Mbit/s have increased from 2.47 million (37% of total) in December 2007 to 3.10 million (43% of total) in June 2008.[53] In December 2008 there were 7.996 million Internet subscribers representing a year-on-year increase of 13%.

There was a decrease of 30% in the number of dial internet subscribers, and an increase of 28% in the number of non-dial subscribers. Currently, Australia has a theoretical 5637734.4 Mbit/s of transpacific bandwidth, however lit capacity is much less. Research is added additionally

Broadband Services Dec 2016 Broadband type Number connections Total Internet services13.461 millionDSL4.716 millionCable1.048 millionFibre1.431 millionSatellite76,000Wireless6.109 millionOther1000

 

Year Internet access Broadband Internet access 199816%N/A199922%N/A200032%N/A200142%N/A.200246%N/A.200353%N/a.2004–0556%16%2005–0660%28%2006–0764%43%2007–0867%52%2009–1072%62%2010–1179%73%2012-1383%77%2014-201586%N/A

Source Used: https://en.wikipedia.org

 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between LAN & WAN?

LAN may be a network that covers a little geographical area, sort of a home, office, or group of buildings. WAN may be a network that covers a broad area. For instance, any network whose communications links cross-regional and metropolitan boundaries over an extended distance.

What is the difference between ‘Generation based cellular network’?

The main difference between the 2 mobile telephone systems (1G and 2G), is that the radio signals employed by 1G network are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Main motive of this generation was to supply secure and reliable channel. During 2G Cellular phones are used for data also alongside voice.

 

Apparently, day by increase of network construction area is opening new doors the more it is upgrading tools, mediums. Already South Korea, United States, China are the country’s leading in the front line by entering the world of 5G network.

So, network optimization has already started reaching that level. Australia is also walking in that foot line. According to the minister for communication, Cyber safety and the arts, Paul Fletcher MP has declared that 2021 would be Australia’s ‘Year of 5G’.